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Have fun and learn more Please ask your parents permission before trying any of these  experiments ! 1. Chemical Reaction Generates Heat Experiment   Equipment needed: Thermometer, Jar, Steel Wool Pad, and Vinegar Chemical reactions occur every day all around us. A chemical reaction  is a process where one type of substance is chemically converted to  another substance. The fire in your fireplace is for example a type of  chemical reaction. This experiment demonstrates a chemical reaction  that's fairly common all around us: Instructions:  Put the thermometer in the jar and close the lid. Wait about 5 minutes and write down the temperature.   Remove the thermometer from the jar. Soak a piece of steel wool in vinegar for one minute.   Squeeze the vinegar out of the steel wool pad. Wrap the steel wool  around the bulb of the thermometer. Place the thermometer and steel wool back into the jar and close the  lid. Wait 5 minutes. Now take a look at the temperature.   Questions:  What happened to the temperature? Are you surprised that it the temperature rose? Findings: The vinegar removes any protective coating from the steel wool,  allowing the iron in the steel to rust. Rusting is a slow combination of iron with oxygen. When this happens,  heat energy is released. The heat released by the rusting of the iron  causes the mercury in the thermometer to expand and rise. Discussion:  Chemical reaction is a process in which one substance is chemically  converted to another. All chemical reactions involve the formation or  destruction of bonds between atoms (atoms, made up of protons and  neutrons in a central nucleus surrounded electrons, are the smallest  particle of a chemical element that can take part in a chemical reaction  without being permanently changed) . Chemical reactions include the  rusting of iron and the digestion of food. Most chemical reactions give  off heat. For example, chemical reactions that occur in digestion give  off heat that keeps our bodies warm and functioning. Chemists use  chemical equations to express what occurs in chemical reactions.  Chemical equations consist of chemical formulas and symbols that  show the substances involved in chemical changes. The chemical  reaction for the rusting of iron shows that four atoms of solid iron react  with three molecules of oxygen gas to form two units of solid rust.  Experiments demonstrate that iron and oxygen react in these  proportions in air at room temperature. Rust is the product, or result, of the reaction. Iron and oxygen are the reactants. The reactants are the  substances that undergo chemical change. 2. Dancing Raisins Equipment needed: Glass Jar, Carbonated Water, and Raisins This experiment will look at the strange effects that Carbon Dioxide  can have on things.We will be using raisins to demonstrate....  Instructions:  Fill a glass or bottle half full of carbonated water. Drop three or four raisins into the carbonated water. Wait around for the show to begin... Questions: What happens? Can you guess why the raisins bob to the surface? Findings: Carbonated water contains dissolved carbon dioxide (a heavy  colourless gas that does not support combustion, dissolves in water to  form carbonic acid, is formed in animal respiration and in the decay or  combustion of animal and vegetable matter, and is absorbed from the  air by plants in photosynthesis.) gas. This gas will collect on the uneven surfaces on the raisins. When  enough gas has collected, it will actually lift the raisins to the surface  (kind of like little tiny parachutes) where the gas is then released into  the air. With the gas now gone, the raisins will sink back to the bottom  where the process begins again. Discussion:  Carbonated water is produced by adding carbon dioxide gas to water  under pressure. The gas makes the water bubble and fizz. 3. Earth's Climate Experiment  Equipment needed: Two identical glass jars, 4 cups cold water, 10 ice  cubes, One clear plastic bag, Thermometer Earth's Climate:  The Earth's climate has changed many times in the past. Subtropical  forests have spread from the south into more temperate (or milder,  cooler climates) areas. Millions of years later, ice sheets spread from  the north covering much of the northern United States, Europe and  Asia with great glaciers. Today, some scientists believe human beings  are changing the climate. How can that be?  Over the past few centuries, people have been burning more amounts  of fuels such as wood, coal, oil, natural gas and petrol. The gases  formed by the burning, such as carbon dioxide, are building up in the  atmosphere. They act like greenhouse glass. The result some experts  believe is the Earth heating up and undergoing global warming. How  can you show the greenhouse effect? Instructions:  Take two identical glass jars each containing 2 cups of cold water. Add 5 ice cubes to each jar. Wrap one in a plastic bag (this is the greenhouse glass). Leave both jars in the sun for one hour. Measure the temperature of the water in each jar. Findings: In bright sunshine, the air inside a greenhouse becomes warm. The  greenhouse glass lets in the sun's light energy and some of its heat  energy. This heat builds up inside the greenhouse. You just showed a small greenhouse effect. What could happen if this  greenhouse effect changed the Earth's climate? Other Examples:  Another version of a greenhouse is what happens inside a car parked  in the sun. The sun's light and heat gets into the vehicle and is trapped inside, like the plastic bag around the jar. The temperature inside a car can get over 49 degrees Celsius. 4. Balloon Racers Equipment needed: Balloons of different sizes, Sticky tape, 25 feet of  thin fishing line, Plastic drinking straws (one for each balloon), Some  heavy books, A tape measure, A pad of paper and pencil for writing  measurements and observations Instructions:  Blow up each balloon, holding the end closed with your fingers so it  stays full. Get someone else to tape a straw to the middle of the  balloons. Let the air back out of the balloons. Push the line through one of the straws with the front of the balloon  facing and bring the balloon and straw back to the other end (the  starting line). Take the piece of fishing line and stretch it tight between the back of  two chairs spaced about 20 feet apart. Tie the ends of the line to each of the chairs Put some heavy books on the seats of the chairs to keep them from  tipping over. Blow up the balloon as much as you can. Pinch off the end. Then let  go of the balloon. Measure how far it went along the fishing line.  Try another balloon of different sizes, or try the same balloon blowing  it 1/2 way full or 1/4 of the way full.  Measure how far the balloon travels. Write down each of the balloons type (round, long, small, large) and  how much you blew it up (full, 1/2 way, 1/4 full, just a little) and how far  each of the balloons travelled. Findings: A law of physics says for every action, there is an equal and opposite  reaction. The force of the air escaping from the balloon and pushing  out the end forced the balloon to travel forward. This is the same  principle used in rockets. Yet, instead of air...the rockets use rocket  fuel. The air you blew into the balloon became stored energy. When you  released the balloon's end, the stored energy became mechanical  energy moving the balloon. Rather than flying all around the room, the straw and the fishing line  kept the balloon travelling in a straight line. Discussion:  What balloons worked best: the long skinny ones or the round ones?  What happened when you blew up the balloon only half way or 1/4 of  the way?  Do you think air can be used for moving a car? What about moving an  astronaut in space? Can you think of other things that compressed air  can do? . 
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